This document shows a possible solution to the suggested exercises in the tutorial.

We extend the expression datatype with constructors for multiplication and division. The term instance needs to be extended with new symbols for multiplication and division.

```
data Expr = Con Int
| Negate Expr
| Add Expr Expr
| Mul Expr Expr
| Div Expr Expr
deriving (Eq, Show, Read)
negateSymbol, addSymbol, mulSymbol, divSymbol :: Symbol
negateSymbol = newSymbol "negate"
addSymbol = newSymbol "add"
mulSymbol = newSymbol "mul"
divSymbol = newSymbol "div"
instance IsTerm Expr where
toTerm (Con x) = TNum (toInteger x)
toTerm (Negate x) = unary negateSymbol (toTerm x)
toTerm (Add x y) = binary addSymbol (toTerm x) (toTerm y)
toTerm (Mul x y) = binary mulSymbol (toTerm x) (toTerm y)
toTerm (Div x y) = binary divSymbol (toTerm x) (toTerm y)
fromTerm (TNum x) = return (Con (fromInteger x))
fromTerm term = fromTermWith f term
where
f s [x] | s == negateSymbol = return (Negate x)
f s [x, y] | s == addSymbol = return (Add x y)
f s [x, y] | s == mulSymbol = return (Mul x y)
f s [x, y] | s == divSymbol = return (Div x y)
f _ _ = fail "invalid expression"
```

We add some examples in which we use multiplication and division.

```
-- expression
expr1, expr2, expr3, expr4, expr5, expr6, expr7 :: Expr
expr1 = Add (Con 5) (Negate (Con 2)) -- 5+(-2)
expr2 = Add (Negate (Con 2)) (Add (Con 3) (Con 5)) -- (-2)+(3+5)
expr3 = Mul (Con 3) (Add (Mul (Con 2) (Con 5)) (Negate (Con 3))) -- 3 * (2*5 - 3)
expr4 = Mul (Div (Con 3) (Con 6)) (Add (Con 1) (Con 1)) -- 3/6 * 1+1
expr5 = Add (Con 7) (Negate (Mul (Con 5) (Negate (Div (Con 1) (Con 2))))) -- 7 + -(5*-(1/2))
expr6 = Div (Div (Con 4) (Con 5)) (Div (Con 9) (Con 8)) -- (4/5)/(9/8)
expr7 = Mul (Div (Div (Con 3) (Con 4)) (Con 7)) (Div (Con 1) (Div (Con 2) (Con 3)))
-- ((3/4)/7)*(1/(2/3)
```

We copy the `negateRule`

and `addRule`

from the tutorial,

```
negateRule :: Rule Expr
negateRule = describe "Negate number" $ makeRule "eval.negate" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Negate (Con x)) = Just $ Con (-x)
f _ = Nothing
addRule :: Rule Expr
addRule = describe "Add two numbers" $ makeRule "eval.add" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Add (Con x) (Con y)) = Just $ Con (x+y)
f _ = Nothing
```

and add a rule for multiplication.

```
mulRule :: Rule Expr
mulRule = describe "Multiply two numbers" $ makeRule "eval.mul" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Mul (Con x) (Con y)) = Just $ Con (x*y)
f _ = Nothing
```

Multiplication distributes over addition. This can be viewed as pushing multiplications as far as possible downwards in the expression.

```
mulAddRule :: Rule Expr
mulAddRule = describe "Distribute multiplication over addition" $ makeRule "eval.dist" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Mul x (Add y z)) = Just $ Add (Mul x y) (Mul x z)
f (Mul (Add x y) z) = Just $ Add (Mul x z) (Mul y z)
f _ = Nothing
```

When we evaluate an expression, we no longer return an integer, but an expression in which divisions still may appear. Alternatively, we can use the type `Ratio`

as the result type, but that might look slightly less attractive when there are no divisions in the argument.

We introduce a number of rules that push divisions as far as possible upwards.

```
divNegateRule :: Rule Expr
divNegateRule = describe "Push negation through division" $ makeRule "eval.divNegate" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Negate (Div x y)) = Just $ Div (Negate x) y
f _ = Nothing
divAddRule :: Rule Expr
divAddRule = describe "Push add through divisions" $ makeRule "eval.divAdd" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Add (Div x y) (Div v w)) = Just $ Div (Add (Mul x w) (Mul v y)) (Mul y w)
f (Add (Div x y) v) = Just $ Div (Add x (Mul v y)) y
f (Add x (Div y v)) = Just $ Div (Add (Mul x v) y) v
f _ = Nothing
divMulRule :: Rule Expr
divMulRule = describe "Push multiply through divisions" $ makeRule "eval.divMul" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Mul (Div x y) (Div v w)) = Just $ Div (Mul x v) (Mul y w)
f (Mul (Div x y) v) = Just $ Div (Mul x v) y
f (Mul x (Div v w)) = Just $ Div (Mul x v) w
f _ = Nothing
```

The `divDivRule`

is the only rule where `Div`

is not pushed to top-level. These are the standard rules for calculating divisions of divisions. Since the `Mul`

and `Add`

rules do not produce divisions of divisions, there is no risk for a loop in the final evaluation strategy.

```
divDivRule :: Rule Expr
divDivRule = describe "Push divisions through divisions" $ makeRule "eval.divDiv" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Div (Div x y) (Div v w)) = Just $ Mul (Div x y) (Div w v)
f (Div (Div x y) v) = Just $ Div x (Mul y v)
f (Div x (Div v w)) = Just $ Mul x (Div w v)
f _ = Nothing
```

I have two simplification rules for divisions; the topHeavyRule splits a division into an addition and a division. I cannot combine the `topHeavyRule`

with the other division rules (in particular: `divAdd`

) since evaluation will loop otherwise.

```
divSimplificationRule :: Rule Expr
divSimplificationRule = describe "Simplify a division" $ makeRule "eval.divSimplification" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Div (Con x) (Con y))
| x == 0 = Just $ Con 0
| x == y = Just $ Con 1
| g > 1 = Just $ Div (Con (div x g)) (Con (div y g))
where g = gcd x y
f _ = Nothing
topHeavyRule :: Rule Expr
topHeavyRule = describe "Simplify a top heavy division" $ makeRule "eval.topHeavy" f
where
f :: Expr -> Maybe Expr
f (Div (Con x) (Con y))
| x > y = Just $ Add (Con (div x y)) (Div (Con (mod x y)) (Con y))
f _ = Nothing
```

`allEvaluationRules`

is the strategy that combines all rules that move multiplications downwards, and divisions upwards, and evaluates all expressions with constants. I do not apply `divSimplificationRule`

, but this could be done.

```
allEvaluationRules :: LabeledStrategy Expr
allEvaluationRules = label "all rules" $
negateRule .|. addRule .|. mulRule .|. mulAddRule .|. divNegateRule .|. divAddRule .|. divMulRule .|. divDivRule
-- .|. divSimplificationRule this simplification can also be done during evaluation
```

`allSimplificationRules`

is the strategy that combines all simplification rules.

```
allSimplificationRules :: LabeledStrategy Expr
allSimplificationRules = label "all rules" $
topHeavyRule .|. divSimplificationRule .|. addRule
```

Evaluation consists of applying `allEvaluationRules`

as often as possible, resulting in pushing divisions up as much as possible, followed by applying `allSimplificationRules`

, which simplifies the divisions, replaces top heavy divisions by additions, and does some additional simplications using the `addRule`

in the resulting expression.

```
evalStrategy :: LabeledStrategy (Context Expr)
evalStrategy = label "eval" $
repeatS (somewhere (liftToContext allEvaluationRules)) .*. repeatS (somewhere (liftToContext allSimplificationRules))
```

Evaluation has been extended with a case for `Mul`

, but not for `Div`

.

```
eval :: Expr -> Int
eval (Add x y) = eval x + eval y
eval (Mul x y) = eval x * eval y
eval (Negate x) = -eval x
eval (Con x) = x
```

An expression is in normal form if it is a `Con`

, a non-top heavy division, or the addition of a constant and a division.

```
isConOrAddDivOrDiv :: Expr -> Bool
isConOrAddDivOrDiv (Con _) = True
isConOrAddDivOrDiv (Add (Con _) (Div _ _)) = True
isConOrAddDivOrDiv (Div (Con _) (Con _)) = True
isConOrAddDivOrDiv _ = False
evalExercise :: Exercise Expr
evalExercise = emptyExercise
{ exerciseId = describe "Evaluate an expression (full)" $
newId "eval.full"
, status = Experimental
, strategy = evalStrategy
, prettyPrinter = show
, navigation = termNavigator
, parser = readM
, equivalence = withoutContext eqExpr
, similarity = withoutContext (==)
, ready = predicate isConOrAddDivOrDiv
, examples = examplesFor Easy [expr1, expr2, expr3]
}
eqExpr :: Expr -> Expr -> Bool
eqExpr x y = eval x == eval y
dr :: DomainReasoner
dr = describe "Domain reasoner for tutorial" (newDomainReasoner "eval")
{ exercises = [Some evalExercise]
, services = myServices
}
myServices :: [Service]
myServices = metaServiceList dr ++ serviceList
main :: IO ()
main = defaultMain dr
```